Wednesday, 1 August 2012

EASA PART-66 MODULE 11A : TURBINE AEROPLANE AERODYNAMICS,STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS


11.1 Theory of Flight

11.1.1 Aeroplane Aerodynamics and Flight Controls (lvl 2)

Operation and effect of:
— roll control: ailerons and spoilers;
— pitch control: elevators, stabilators, variable incidence stabilisers and canards;
— yaw control, rudder limiters;
Control using elevons, ruddervators;
High lift devices, slots, slats, flaps, flaperons;
Drag inducing devices, spoilers, lift dumpers, speed brakes;
Effects of wing fences, saw tooth leading edges;
Boundary layer control using, vortex generators, stall wedges or leading edge devices;
Operation and effect of trim tabs, balance and antibalance (leading) tabs, servo tabs, spring tabs, mass
balance, control surface bias, aerodynamic balance panels;

11.1.2 High Speed Flight (lvl 2)

Speed of sound, subsonic flight, transonic flight, supersonic flight,
Mach number, critical Mach number, compressibility buffet, shock wave, aerodynamic heating, area rule;
Factors affecting airflow in engine intakes of high speed aircraft;
Effects of sweepback on critical Mach number.

11.2 Airframe Structures — General Concepts (lvl 2)

(a) Airworthiness requirements for structural strength;
Structural classification, primary, secondary and tertiary;
Fail safe, safe life, damage tolerance concepts;
Zonal and station identification systems;
Stress, strain, bending, compression, shear, torsion, tension, hoop stress, fatigue;
Drains and ventilation provisions;
System installation provisions;
Lightning strike protection provision;
Aircraft bonding

(b) Construction methods of: stressed skin fuselage, formers, stringers, longerons, bulkheads, frames,
doublers, struts, ties, beams, floor structures, reinforcement, methods of skinning, anti-corrosive
protection, wing, empennage and engine attachments;
Structure assembly techniques: riveting, bolting, bonding;
Methods of surface protection, such as chromating, anodising, painting;
Surface cleaning;
Airframe symmetry: methods of alignment and symmetry checks.

11.3 Airframe Structures — Aeroplanes (lvl 2)

11.3.1 Fuselage (ATA 52/53/56)
Construction and pressurisation sealing;
Wing, stabiliser, pylon and undercarriage attachments;
Seat installation and cargo loading system;
Doors and emergency exits: construction, mechanisms, operation and safety devices;
Windows and windscreen construction and mechanisms.

11.3.2 Wings (ATA 57)
Construction;
Fuel storage;
Landing gear, pylon, control surface and high lift/drag attachments.

11.3.3 Stabilisers (ATA 55)
Construction;
Control surface attachment.

11.3.4 Flight Control Surfaces (ATA 55/57)
Construction and attachment;
Balancing — mass and aerodynamic.

11.3.5 Nacelles/Pylons (ATA 54)
Construction;
Firewalls;
Engine mounts.

11.4 Air Conditioning and Cabin Pressurisation (ATA 21)

11.4.1 Air supply (lvl 2)
Sources of air supply including engine bleed, APU and ground cart;

11.4.2 Air Conditioning (lvl 3)
Air conditioning systems;
Air cycle and vapour cycle machines;
Distribution systems;
Flow, temperature and humidity control system.

11.4.3 Pressurisation (lvl 3)
Pressurisation systems;
Control and indication including control and safety valves;
Cabin pressure controllers.

11.4.4 Safety and warning devices (lvl 3)
Protection and warning devices.

11.5 Instruments/Avionic Systems

11.5.1 Instrument Systems (ATA 31)(lvl 2)
Pitot static system: altimeter, air speed indicator, vertical speed indicator;
Gyroscopic: artificial horizon, attitude director, direction indicator, horizontal situation indicator,
turn and slip indicator,turn coordinator;
Compasses: direct reading, remote reading;
Angle of attack indication, stall warning systems;
Glass Cockpit;
Other aircraft system indication.

11.5.2 Avionic Systems (lvl 1)
Fundamentals of system lay-outs and operation of;
Auto Flight (ATA 22);
Communications (ATA 23);
Navigation Systems (ATA 34).

11.6 Electrical Power (ATA 24)(lvl 3)

Batteries Installation and Operation;
DC power generation;
AC power generation;
Emergency power generation;
Voltage regulation;
Power distribution;
Inverters, transformers, rectifiers;
Circuit protection;
External/Ground power;

11.7 Equipment and Furnishings (ATA 25)(lvl 2)

(a) Emergency equipment requirements;
Seats, harnesses and belts.
(b) Cabin lay-out;
Equipment lay-out;
Cabin Furnishing Installation;
Cabin entertainment equipment;
Galley installation;
Cargo handling and retention equipment;
Airstairs.

11.8 Fire Protection (ATA 26)(lvl 3)

(a) Fire and smoke detection and warning systems;
Fire extinguishing systems;
System tests.
(b) Portable fire extinguisher

11.9 Flight Controls (ATA 27)(lvl 3)

Primary controls: aileron, elevator, rudder, spoiler;
Trim control;
Active load control;
High lift devices;
Lift dump, speed brakes;
System operation: manual, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, fly-by-wire;
Artificial feel, Yaw damper, Mach trim, rudder limiter, gust locks sys.;
Balancing and rigging;
Stall protection/warning system.

11.10 Fuel System (ATA 28)(lvl 3)

System lay-out;
Fuel tanks;
Supply systems;
Dumping, venting and draining;
Cross-feed and transfer;
Indications and warnings;
Refuelling and defuelling;
Longitudinal balance fuel systems.

11.11 Hydraulic Power (ATA 29)(lvl 3)

System lay-out;
Hydraulic fluids;
Hydraulic reservoirs and accumulators;
Pressure generation: electric, mechanical, pneumatic;
Emergency pressure generation;
Filters;
Pressure Control;
Power distribution;
Indication and warning systems;
Interface with other systems.

11.12 Ice And Protection (ATA 30)(Lvl 3)

Ice formation, classification and detection;
Anti-icing systems: electrical, hot air and chemical;
De-icing systems: electrical, hot air, pneumatic and chemical;
Rain repellant;
Probe and drain heating.
Wiper systems

11.13 Landing Gear (ATA 32)(lvl 3)

Construction, shock absorbing;
Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency;
Indications and warning;
Wheels, brakes, antiskid and autobraking;
Tyres;
Steering;
Air ground sensing.

11.14 Lights (ATA 33)(lvl 3)

External: navigation, anti-collision, landing, taxiing, ice;
Internal: cabin, cockpit, cargo;
Emergency.

11.15 Oxygen (ATA 35)(lvl 3)

System lay-out: cockpit, cabin;
Sources, storage, charging and distribution;
Supply regulation;
Indications and warnings;

11.16 Pneumatic/Vacuum (ATA 36)(lvl 3)

System lay-out;
Sources: engine/APU, compressors, reservoirs, ground supply;
Pressure control;
Distribution;
Indications and warnings;
Interfaces with other systems.

11.17 Water/Waste (ATA 38) (lvl 3)

Water system lay-out, supply, distribution, servicing and draining;
Toilet system lay-out, flushing and servicing;
Corrosion aspect

11.18 On Board Maintenance Systems (ATA 45)(lvl 2)

Central maintenance computers;
Data loading system;
Electronic library system;
Printing;
Structure monitoring (damage tolerance monitoring).

11.19 Integrated Modular Avionics (ATA42)(lvl 2)

Functions that may be typically integrated in the Integrated Modular Avionic (IMA) modules are, among
others:
. Bleed Management,
Air Pressure Control,
Air Ventilation and Control,
Avionics and Cockpit Ventilation Control,
Temperature Control,
Air Traffic Communication,
Avionics Communication Router,
Electrical Load
Management, Circuit Breaker Monitoring,
Electrical System BITE, Fuel Management,
Braking Control,
Steering Control,
Landing Gear Extension and Retraction,
Tyre Pressure Indication,
Oleo Pressure Indication, Brake,
Temperature Monitoring,
Core System;
Network Components

11.20 Cabin System (ATA44)(lvl 2)

The units and components which furnish a means of entering the passengers and providing communication
within the aircraft (Cabin Intercommunication Data System) and between the aircraft cabin and ground
stations (Cabin Network Service).
Includes voice, data, music and video transmissions.
The Cabin Intercommunication Data System provides an interface between cockpit/cabin crew and cabin
systems. These systems support data exchange of the different related LRU’s and they are typically
operated via Flight Attendant Panels

The Cabin Network Service typically consists on a server, typically interfacing with, among others, the
following systems:
- Data/Radio Communication, In-Flight Entertainment Systems
- Access to pre-departure/departure report
- E-mail/intranet/internet access,
- Passenger database,

Cabin Core System
In-Flight Entertainment System
External Communication System
Cabin Mass Memory System
Cabin Monitoring System
Miscellaneous Cabin System

EASA PART-66 Module 8 : Basic Aerodynamics


8.1 Physics of the Atmosphere (level 2)
International Standard Atmosphere (ISA), application to aerodynamics.



8.2 Aerodynamics (level 2)
Airflow around a body;
Boundary layer, laminar and turbulent flow, free stream flow, relative airflow, upwash and downwash, vortices, stagnation;
The terms: camber, chord, mean aerodynamic chord, profile (parasite) drag, induced drag, centre of pressure, angle of attack, wash in and wash out, fineness ratio, wing shape and aspect ratio;
Thrust, Weight, Aerodynamic Resultant;
Generation of Lift and Drag: Angle of Attack, Lift coefficient, Drag coefficient, polar curve, stall;
Aerofoil contamination including ice, snow, frost.



8.3 Theory of Flight (level 2)
Relationship between lift, weight, thrust and drag;
Glide ratio;
Steady state flights, performance;
Theory of the turn;
Influence of load factor: stall, flight envelope and structural limitations;
Lift augmentation.



8.4 Flight Stability and Dynamics (level 2)
Longitudinal, lateral and directional stability (active and passive)


EASA Part-66 Module 5.15 : Typical Electronic/Digital Aircraft Systems


5.15 Typical Electronic/Digital Aircraft Systems (LVL 2)
     a. General arrangement of typical electronic/digital aircraft systems and associated BITE.
             - ACARS-ARINC Communication & Addressing and Reporting System
             - ECAM-Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitoring
             - EFIS-Electronic Flight Instrument System
             - EICAS-Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System
             - FBW-Fly by Wire
             - FMS-Flight Management System
             - GPS-Global Positioning System
             - IRS-Inertial Reference System
             - TCAS-Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System
             - Integrated Modular Avionics
             - Cabin Systems
             - Information Systems

EASA Part-66 Module 5.14 : Electromagnetic Environment


5.14 Electromagnetic Environment (LVL 2)
     a. Influence of the following phenomena on maintenance practices for electronic system:
             - EMC-Electromagnetic Compatibility
             - EMI-Electromagnetic Interference
             - HIRF-High Intensity Radiated Field
             - Lightning/lightning protection

EASA Part-66 Module 5.12 : Electrostatic Sensitive Devices

5.12 Electrostatic Sensitive Devices (LVL 2)
     a. Special handling of components sensitive to electrostatic discharges
     b. Awareness of risks and possible damage, component and personnel anti-static protection devices

EASA Part-66 Module 5.11 : Electronic Displays


5.11 Electronic Displays (LVL 2)
     a. Principles of operation used in modern aircraft,
              - Cathode Ray Tubes,
              - Light Emitting Diodes & Liquid Crystal Display.

EASA Part-66 Module 5.4 : Data Buses


5.4 Data Buses (LVL 2)
     a. Operation of data buses in aircraft systems,
     b. ARINC and other specifications
     c. Aircraft network / Ethernet.

EASA Part-66 Module 5.3 : Data Conversion


5.3 Data Conversion  (LVL 1)
     a. Analogue Data, Digital Data
     b. Operation and application
             - Analogue to digital
             - Digital to analogue converters
             - Inputs and outputs
             - Limitations of various types

EASA Part-66 Module 5.1 : Electronic Instrument System


5.1 Electronic Instrument Systems (LVL 2)
      a. Typical systems arrangements
      b. Cockpit layout of electronic instrument systems.