Nature of matter: the chemical elements, structure of atoms, molecules;
States: solid, liquid and gaseous;
Changes between states.
2.2 Mechanics (level 2)
Forces, moments and couples, representation as vectors;
Centre of gravity;
Elements of theory of stress, strain and elasticity: tension, compression, shear and torsion;
Nature and properties of solid, fluid and gas;
Pressure and buoyancy in liquids (barometers).
Linear movement: uniform motion in a straight line, motion under constant acceleration (motion under gravity);
Rotational movement: uniform circular motion (centrifugal/centripetal forces);
Periodic motion: pendular movement;
Simple theory of vibration, harmonics and resonance;
Velocity ratio, mechanical advantage and efficiency.
Force, inertia, work, power, energy (potential, kinetic and total energy), heat, efficiency;
(b) Momentum, conservation of momentum;
Friction: nature and effects, coefficient of friction (rolling resistance)
2.2.4 Fluid dynamics
(a) Specific gravity and density;
(b) Viscosity, fluid resistance, effects of streamlining;
Effects of compressibility on fluids;
Static, dynamic and total pressure: Bernoulli's Theorem, venturi.
2.3 Thermodynamics (level 2)
(a) Temperature: thermometers and temperature scales: Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin;
(b) Heat capacity, specific heat;
Heat transfer: convection, radiation and conduction;
First and second law of thermodynamics;
Gases: ideal gases laws; specific heat at constant volume and constant pressure, work
done by expanding gas;
Isothermal, adiabatic expansion and compression, engine cycles, constant volume &
constant pressure, refrigerators & heat pumps;
Latent heats of fusion and evaporation, thermal energy, heat of combustion.
2.4 Optics (Light) (level 2)
Nature of light; speed of light;
Laws of reflection and refraction: reflection at plane surfaces, reflection by spherical mirrors, refraction, lenses;
2.5 Wave Motion and Sound (level 2)
Wave motion: mechanical waves, sinusoidal wave motion, interference phenomena, standing waves;
Sound: speed of sound, production of sound, intensity, pitch and quality, Doppler effect.