Thursday, 14 June 2012
EASA PART-66 MODULE 12 : HELICOPTER AERODYNAMICS, STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS
12.1 Theory of Flight — Rotary Wing Aerodynamics (level 2)
Effects of gyroscopic precession;
Torque reaction and directional control;
Dissymmetry of lift, Blade tip stall;
Translating tendency and its correction;
Coriolis effect and compensation;
Vortex ring state, power settling, overpitching;
12.2 Flight Control Systems (level 3)
Cyclic control; Collective control;
Yaw control: Anti-Torque Control, Tail rotor, bleed air;
Main Rotor Head: Design and Operation features;
Blade Dampers: Function and construction;
Rotor Blades: Main and tail rotor blade construction and attachment;
Trim control, fixed and adjustable stabilisers;
System operation: manual, hydraulic, electrical and fly-by-wire;
Balancing and Rigging.
12.3 Blade Tracking and Vibration Analysis (level 3)
Main and tail rotor tracking;
Static and dynamic balancing;
Vibration types, vibration reduction methods;
12.4 Transmissions (level 3)
Gear boxes, main and tail rotors;
Clutches, free wheel units and rotor brake.
Tail rotor drive shafts, flexible couplings, bearings, vibration dampers and bearing hangers.
12.5 Airframe Structures (level 2)
(a) Airworthiness requirements for structural strength;
Structural classification, primary, secondary and tertiary;
Fail safe, safe life, damage tolerance concepts;
Zonal and station identification systems;
Stress, strain, bending, compression, shear, torsion, tension, hoop stress, fatigue;
Drains and ventilation provisions;
System installation provisions;
Lightning strike protection provision.
(b) Construction methods of: stressed skin fuselage, formers, stringers, longerons,
bulkheads, frames, doublers, struts, ties, beams, floor structures, reinforcement,
methods of skinning and anti-corrosive protection.
Pylon, stabiliser and undercarriage attachments;
Doors: construction, mechanisms, operation and safety devices;
Windows and windscreen construction;
Structure assembly techniques: riveting, bolting, bonding;
Methods of surface protection, such as chromating, anodising, painting;
Airframe symmetry: methods of alignment and symmetry checks.
12.6 Air Conditioning (ATA 21) (level 3)
12.6.1 Air supply
Sources of air supply including engine bleed and ground cart;
12.6.2 Air Conditioning
Air conditioning systems;
Flow and temperature control systems;
Protection and warning devices.
12.7 Instruments/Avionic Systems (level 2)
12.7.1 Instrument Systems (ATA 31)
Pitot static system:altimeter, air speed indicator, vertical speed indicator;
Gyroscopic:artificial horizon, attitude director, direction indicator, horizontal situation indicator, turn and slip indicator, turn coordinator;
Compasses: direct reading, remote reading;
Vibration indicating systems — HUMS;
Other aircraft system indication.
12.7.2 Avionic Systems (level 1)
Fundamentals of system layouts and operation of:
Auto Flight (ATA 22);
Communications (ATA 23);
Navigation Systems (ATA 34).
12.8 Electrical Power (ATA 24) (level 3)
Batteries Installation and Operation;
DC power generation, AC power generation;
Emergency power generation;
Voltage regulation, Circuit protection.
Inverters, transformers, rectifiers;
12.9 Equipment and Furnishings (ATA 25) (level 2)
(a) Emergency equipment requirements;
Seats, harnesses and belts;
(b) Emergency flotation systems;
Cabin lay-out, cargo retention;
Cabin Furnishing Installation.
12.10 Fire Protection (ATA 26) (level 3)
Fire and smoke detection and warning systems;
Fire extinguishing systems;
12.11 Fuel Systems (ATA 28) (level 3)
Dumping, venting and draining;
Cross-feed and transfer;
Indications and warnings;
Refuelling and defuelling.
12.12 Hydraulic Power (ATA 29) (level 3)
Hydraulic reservoirs and accumulators;
Pressure generation: electric, mechanical, pneumatic;
Emergency pressure generation;
Indication and warning systems;
Interface with other systems.
12.13 Ice and Rain Protection (ATA 30) (level 3)
Ice formation, classification and detection;
Anti-icing and de-icing systems: electrical, hot air and chemical;
Rain repellant and removal;
Probe and drain heating.
12.14 Landing Gear (ATA 32) (level 3)
Construction, shock absorbing;
Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency;
Indications and warning;
Wheels, tyres, brakes;
Air ground sensing.
12.15 Lights (ATA 33) (level 3)
External: navigation, landing, taxiing, ice;
Internal: cabin, cockpit, cargo;
12.16 Pneumatic/Vacuum (ATA 36) (level 3)
Sources: engine, compressors, reservoirs, ground supply;
Indications and warnings;
Interfaces with other systems.
12.17 Integrated Modular Avionics (ATA42) (level 2)
Functions that may be typically integrated in the Integrated Modular Avionic (IMA) modules are, among others:
Bleed Management, Air Pressure Control, Air Ventilation and Control, Avionics and Cockpit Ventilation Control, Temperature Control, Air Traffic Communication, Avionics Communication Router, Electrical Load Management, Circuit Breaker Monitoring, Electrical System BITE, Fuel Management, Braking Control, Steering Control, Landing Gear Extension and Retraction, Tyre Pressure Indication, Oleo Pressure Indication, Brake Temperature Monitoring, etc
12.18 On Board Maintenance Systems (ATA45) (level 2)
Central Maintenance Computers;
Data loading systems;
Electronic library system; Printing;
Structure monitoring (damage tolerance monitoring)
12.19 Information Systems (ATA46) (level 2)
The units and components which furnish a means of storing, updating and retrieving digital information traditionally provide on paper, microfilm or microfiche. Includes units that are dedicated to the information storage and retrieval function such as the electronic library mass storage and controller. Does not include units or components installed for other uses and shared with other systems, such as flight deck printer or general use display
Typical example include Air Traffic and Information Management System and Network Server Systems
Aircraft General Information Systems;
Flight Deck Information System;
Maintenance Information System;
Passenger Cabin Information System;
Miscellaneous Information System;