**3.1 Electron Theory (level 1)**

Structure and distribution of electrical charges within: atoms, molecules, ions, compounds;

Molecular structure of conductors, semiconductors and insulators.

**3.2 Static Electricity and Conduction**

**(level 2)**

Static electricity and distribution of electrostatic charges;

Electrostatic laws of attraction and repulsion;

Units of charge, Coulomb's Law;

Conduction of electricity in solids, liquids, gases and a vacuum.

**3.3 Electrical Terminology**

**(level 2)**

The following terms, their units and factors affecting them: potential difference, electromotive force, voltage, current, resistance, conductance, charge, conventional current flow, electron flow.

**3.4 Generation of Electricity**

**(level 1)**

Production of electricity by the following methods: light, heat, friction, pressure, chemical action, magnetism and motion.

**3.5 DC Sources of Electricity**

**(level 2)**

Construction and basic chemical action of: primary cells, secondary cells, lead acid cells, nickel cadmium cells, other alkaline cells;

Cells connected in series and parallel;

Internal resistance and its effect on a battery;

Construction, materials and operation of thermocouples;

Operation of photo-cells.

**3.6 DC Circuits**

**(level 2)**

Ohms Law, Kirchoff's Voltage and Current Laws;

Calculations using the above laws to find resistance, voltage & current;

Significance of the internal resistance of a supply.

**3.7 Resistance/Resistor**

**(level 2)**

(a) Resistance and affecting factors;

Specific resistance;

Resistor colour code, values and tolerances, preferred values, wattage ratings;

Resistors in series and parallel;

Calculation of total resistance using series, parallel and series parallel combinations;

Operation and use of potentiometers and rheostats;

Operation of Wheatstone Bridge.

(b) Positive and negative temperature coefficient conductance;

Fixed resistors, stability, tolerance and limitations, methods of construction;

Variable resistors, thermistors, voltage dependent resistors;

Construction of potentiometers and rheostats;

Construction of Wheatstone Bridge;

**3.8 Power**

**(level 2)**

Power, work and energy (kinetic and potential);

Dissipation of power by a resistor;

Power formula;

Calculations involving power, work and energy.

**3.9 Capacitance/Capacitor**

**(level 2)**

Operation and function of a capacitor;

Factors affecting capacitance area of plates, distance between plates, number of plates, dielectric and dielectric constant, working voltage, voltage rating;

Capacitor types, construction and function;

Capacitor colour coding;

Calculations of capacitance and voltage in series and parallel circuits;

Exponential charge and discharge of a capacitor, time constants;

Testing of capacitors.

**3.10 Magnetism**

**(level 2)**

(a) Theory of magnetism;

Properties of a magnet;

Action of a magnet suspended in the Earth's magnetic field;

Magnetisation and demagnetisation;

Magnetic shielding;

Various types of magnetic material;

Electromagnets construction and principles of operation;

Hand clasp rules to determine: magnetic field around current carrying conductor.

(b) Magnetomotive force, field strength, magnetic flux density, permeability, hysteresis

loop, retentivity, coercive force reluctance, saturation point, eddy currents;

Precautions for care and storage of magnets.

**3.11 Inductance/Inductor**

**(level 2)**

Faraday's Law;

Action of inducing a voltage in a conductor moving in a magnetic field;

Induction principles;

Effects of the following on the magnitude of an induced voltage: magnetic field strength, rate of change of flux, number of conductor turns;

Mutual induction;

The effect the rate of change of primary current and mutual inductance has on induced voltage;

Factors affecting mutual inductance: number of turns in coil, physical size of coil, permeability of coil, position of coils with respect to each other;

Lenz's Law and polarity determining rules;

Back emf, self induction;

Saturation point;

Principle uses of inductors;

**3.12 DC Motor/Generator Theory**

**(level 2)**

Basic motor and generator theory;

Construction and purpose of components in DC generator;

Operation of, and factors affecting output and direction of current flow in DC generators;

Operation of, and factors affecting output power, torque, speed and direction of rotation of DC motors;

Series wound, shunt wound and compound motors;

Starter Generator construction.

**3.13 AC Theory**

**(level 2)**

Sinusoidal waveform: phase, period, frequency, cycle;

Instantaneous, average, root mean square, peak, peak to peak current values & calculations of these values, in relation to voltage, current & power;

Triangular/Square waves;

Single/3 phase principles.

**3.14 Resistive (R), Capacitive (C) and Inductive (L) Circuits**

**(level 2)**

circuits, parallel, series and series parallel;

Power dissipation in L, C and R circuits;

Impedance, phase angle, power factor and current calculations;

True power, apparent power and reactive power calculations.

**3.15 Transformers**

**(level 2)**

Transformer construction principles and operation;

Transformer losses and methods for overcoming them;

Transformer action under load and no-load conditions;

Power transfer, efficiency, polarity markings;

Calculation of line and phase voltages and currents;

Calculation of power in a three phase system;

Primary and Secondary current, voltage, turns ratio,power, efficiency;

Auto transformers.

**3.16 Filters**

**(level 1)**

Operation, application and uses of the following filters: low pass, high pass, band pass, band stop.

**3.17 AC Generators**

**(level 2)**

Rotation of loop in a magnetic field and waveform produced;

Operation and construction of revolving armature and revolving field type AC generators;

Single phase, two phase and three phase alternators;

Three phase star and delta connections advantages and uses;

Permanent Magnet Generators.

**3.18 AC Motors**

**(level 2)**

Construction, principles of operation and characteristics of: AC synchronous and induction motors both single and polyphase;

Methods of speed control and direction of rotation;

Methods of producing a rotating field: capacitor, inductor, shaded or split pole.

Please upload M3 & M4 Presentations ..Thank you for great work

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